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M, K, "Guineamen": Some Technical Aspects of Slave Ships, in
Tibbles, Anthony (ed.), Transatlantic Slavery: Against Human Dignity, HMSO,
- 35 .
. . three-masted sailing rig. In its basic form, this carried square
sails on the bowsprit projecting ahead of the ship and on the fore and
main masts, and a triangular fore-and-aft lateen sail on the mizzen mast
at the stern. . . . Spare baulks of timber lashed on the deck
could be fashioned into replacement masts and spars after storm damage,
and bolts of spare canvas could be cut and sewn into new sails.
38 . . . During the
eighteenth century . . . masts increased in height for topgallant and
royal sails. Light-weather sails known as studding sails . . . extended
out on spars from the normal sails. . . .'reef points' . . . were short
lengths of rope sewn into the sails by which the area of sail could be
reduced to stop the vessel labouring in an increasing wind.
39 . . . the average size
of Liverpool vessels . . . 1785(:) under 140 tons burthern.
40 'frigate built' . . .
meant she was built with a raised after deck. . . it gave the master and
crew a raised position of defence against revolt, which was reinforced
with swivel guns and a barricade whilst at anchor off the West African
coast. . . The last quarter of the eighteenth century witnessed .
. . the introduction of copper sheathing. . . . Iron anchor cables
. . . were available from about 1800 though rare in merchant ships.
Thomas,The History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment of the Abolition of
the African Slave Trade London 1808
Hair, P. E.
H. and J. D. Alsop, ENGLISH SEAMEN AND TRADERS IN GUINEA 1553-1565, The New
Evidence of Their Wills. http://www.mellenpress.com/html/hairengl.html
Essay on Impolicy of the African Slave Trade, 1788
Francis, Slave ships and slaving, 1927, Westport, Conn.: Negro Universities
and R. Cooper, Dictionary of British Ships and Seamen