THE MIDDLE PASSAGE

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The Love of Liberty's Middle Passage

Showing prevailing winds
map from:
Van Dantzig, A, Het Nederlandse Aandeel in de Slawenhandel Fibula 1968 (in Dutch)

credit:Koninklijke Biblioteek, Den Haag

from:
Clarkson, Thomas,
The History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the African Slave Trade,
London 1808



The slave ship 'Brookes' built for 421 slaves; packed with 700.



         

A.   handcuffs
CDE thumbscrew
FGHI speculum oris
B foot shackles


Den Haag, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 249 H 21

OTHER REFERENCES

Adams, Capt. John, Sketches taken during ten voyages to Africa between the years 1786 and 1800, London, 1823, Frank Cass, 1966

Barbot, John, A Description of the coasts of north and south Guinea  1746

Benezet, A, Some Historical Account of Guinea

Benezet, A, Observations on the Enslaving, Importing and Purchasing of Negroes Society of Friends, Germantown, 1759

Canot, Theodore, Adventures of an African Slaver NY 1928

Conneau, Theophilus A, Slaver's Logbook

Donnan, Elizabeth, Documents Illustrative of the Slave Trade to America, 4 vols, Washington 1930-35

Falconbridge, A, An account of the slave trade on the coast of Africa 1788

Hair, P. E. H., Atlantic Slave Trade and Black Africa , 36pp Liverpool UP, 1989

Harms, Robert,  The Diligent: A Voyage through the Worlds of the Slave Trade  2003  ISBN: 0465028721

Howard, Thomas. Black voyage: eyewitness accounts of the Atlantic slave trade. [1st ed.]. Boston, Little, Brown [1971].

Klein, Herbert S. The middle passage: comparative studies in the Atlantic slave trade. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c1978.

Mannix, D P and Lawley, M, Black Cargoes London 1963

Marchais, 1725 see Astley

Owen, Nicholas, Journal of a Slave Trader Routledge 1930 (re Sierra Leone late 18c)

Palmer, Colin, African Slave Trade: The Cruellest Commerce, National Geographic Magazine Vol 182 No. 3 September 1992

Palmer, Colin A., Human Cargoes The British Slave Trade to Spanish America Urbana Illinois

Phillips, Thomas, A Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London 1693-4 (in Churchill's Collection of Voyages 1732)

Rawley, James, The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade New York 1981

Reynolds, Edward, Stand the Storm, A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, Allison and Busby, 1985

Roemer L F A True Account of the Coast of Guinea 1760

Schwarz, Suzanne  SLAVE CAPTAIN The career of James Irving in the Liverpool slave trade 164pp. Bridge Books, 61 Park Avenue, Wrexham, Clwyd LL12 7AW. Paperback, Pounds 8.95. 1 872424 42 2.

Tattersfield Nigel The Forgotten Trade Jonathan Cape 460pp

Villault, N, A Relation of the coasts of Africa called Guinea 1670

Williams, Gomer History of the Liverpool ... with an account of the Liverpool Slave Trade