Please click on the bulleted headings to
Margaret, West African Trade and Coast Society OUP 1969 (quotations
1756-60 and 1761-4: Governor at Anomabu.
1756-60: Richard Brew is reprimanded for selling slaves to the
1757 moved into Castle.
1759 Building finished .
1760 early Feb: Brew left for Ireland (after nearly 15
1761 September. Returned. Took over Castle on 1
October. Accused of shipping Dutch goods to Africa in 1761
1756-63: 7 years war Britain - France.
1763 probable start of construction of Castle Brew.
Snow = two-masted ship used in slave trading. Ships spent
several months acquiring slaves for export.
7 Forts relied on the
immediate locality for a wide range of services: canoemen, labourers,
domestics, certain foodstuffs (fowls, eggs, cows) water, wood. Had house
slaves. Cook. Had own small European staff and garrison for
administration and defence.
8 Letters took up to six
months to reach England. The Committee's store ship was normally
an annual event.
22 1766 -1816
Philip Quaque appointed as missionary, catechist
and schoolmaster for the negroes on the Gold Coast of Africa by the
Society for the Propagation of the gospel. Appointed first African
chaplain at Cape Coast Castle by the Committee of Merchants. English
69 Horatio Smith, cousin
of Samuel Smith, Brew's partner, assistant to Brew from 1769.
71 Dutch feared in 1765
that Brew and Webster's company would gradually swallow up and spoil the
whole trade on the coast.
72 Brew's company owned
schooners, brigs and sloops which plied between Anomabu and outstations.
75 Antelope, Albany,
competitive mediator alongside the British and Dutch; efforts to bring
himself to the notice of Osei Kwadjo, Asantehene.
74 Trading in East India
cottons and linens, weapons, gunpowder and spirits.
75 Brew bought rum,
tobacco and provisions from the Portuguese. Standard measure of
gold dust: ounces and ackies (= 1/16 troy ounce = £4) Guinea
cloth, dyed with indigo (blue) common (Yoruba from Ijebu)
78 Brew had dealings with
Vernons, merchants from Newport, Rhode Island
79 Traders aimed at
accumulating a gold reserve, valuable as a commodity, but also as medium
of exchange. Might be acquired by barter for tobacco.
80 A ship's carpenter
made Brew's coffin in 1776. Buried the same day as he died.
Brew was a thorn in the flesh of the Dutch (and English) through his
machinations to obtain an overriding advantage in local diplomacy.
Abusive in language. Dominating in behaviour, imbued with romantic
notions of impressing upon the local population his superiority in
power, wealth, importance. Turbulent personality
93 Brew's mediating
attempts aimed at settling the peace of the country and opening the
trading paths into the interior brought trouble and embarrassment to
the forts. In 1765 Brew's assistant Webster seized the Dutch
Director General's messenger and placed him in double chains at Castle
Brew. Dutch protested at Cape Coast Castle.
99 Castle Brew -
domestic situation. Traders were hard headed business realists,
adventurers, crude, requiring an unusual degree of toughness both of
spirit and body for survival on the Coast. Measure of sophistication and
literary style of merit. Bedroom and hall furnished in mahogany. Bedroom
had bedstead, settee, two arm chairs, table, bureau and bookcase used
for storage of valuables such as gold. Hall, spacious, scene of
social and business dealings, two settees, 23 Windsor chairs, 4 mahogany
tables, 2 bureaux and bookcases, sideboard. 4 bedsteads for extra
sleeping accommodation. Lighting by candles. Glass chandelier in
hall. 4 looking glasses. 66 pictures of different sizes.
Organ played for religious services. (Quaque visited). Silverware
candlesticks, large salver, cream jug, teaspoons, china, glassware,
linen, 60 plates, 24 cups and saucers, Queen's ware, decanters for wine,
punch and water, wineglasses, 26 table cloths. Clothes in 18th
century style: 15 waistcoats, 9 coats laced and plain, 16 shirts, 9
velvet collars, cravats, patterned silk breeches, pairs of stockings,
some of them silk. Played cards and backgammon. Books
included Tom Jones, Pope, Swift, Addison, Dr. Johnson's dictionary,
History of Guinea, Don Quixote.
103 Castle architecture: bastion, ravelin, horn
Brew preparing a few anecdotes to throw into the palaver house (parliament).
104 Small and restricted European society.
Tensions. Animosity. Backbiting. Existence narrow and encompassed.
Companionship too unvarying. Gossiping rife. Conversation
turned on scandal. Incidents magnified out of proportion.
Friendships precarious. With the Dutch Brew had stormy
passages over the years, though this did not preclude business
relations. Occasional visiting. Frequent communication by letter
sent by messenger. In times of emergency or illness, assistance
offered or asked. Westgate suggested to Brew, who had been unwell, that
he convalesce by taking a sea trip to Winneba. Brew was told that
he ought to have more exercise and avoid indigestible foods such as yam.
Also not to neglect the daily dose of Chinchona bark, a preventive
against fever. Sheep and turkey for a Christmas present. Ships from
Europe brought newspapers, hampers of fine potatoes. Referred to
their black women as wenches.
Fleeting liaisons were sometimes contracted. There were few
resident traders who did not enter into a settled relationship with a
local woman. Will: "ïn consideration of her strict
attention and attendance on me during the three years we have lived
together the sum of £20 sterling to be paid to her in gold with 2 gold
rings which belong to me as a token of remembrance".
109 On Trinity Sunday 1770 Quaque conducted
evening service at Castle Brew; baptized child of captain Ebenezer Price
in the presence of several Liverpool captains.
110 Brew kept Asante hostages at Castle Brew
including the Asantehene's cousin, a young man of 20. Osei Kwadjo
wanted them returned. (1765-72) Released the cousin in 1771, Fanti
having agreed to stand security for his claim for the cost of
113 On his death, the Dutch looked forward to an
era of peace now that one so notorious had left the earthly scene.
(Director General P Woortman, 1776)
Hugh, The Slave Trade, The history of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440-1870
When the American Revolution interrupted the slave trade, the
shortage of rum on the West Coast of Africa caused as much heartache
among the European factors and governors as among the African dealers.
Governor Richard Miles of Cape Coast had to make do with Caribbean
rum for some years, but it was not the same thing. Richard Brew
was equally distraught. The Africans with whom Rhode Island
captains had traded, especially along the Gold and Windward coasts, had
also become addicted to North American rum, a fact which gave captains
from Rhode Island a remarkable advantage when the traffic recovered in